November 13, 2019
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    Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe ex-president, dies aged 95

    September 06, 2019

    Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's first post-independence leader, has died aged 95. His family confirmed his death to the BBC. Mr Mugabe had been receiving treatment in a hospital in Singapore since April. He was ousted in a military coup in 2017 after 37 years in power.Mr Mugabe's early years were praised for broadening access to health and education for the black majority - but his later years were marked by rights abuses and corruption.He won Zimbabwe's first election after it secured independence from the UK, becoming prime minister in 1980. He abolished the office in 1987, becoming president instead.
    Who was Robert Mugabe?Mr Mugabe was born on 21 February 1924 in what was then Rhodesia - a British colony, run by its white minority. He was imprisoned for more than a decade without trial after criticising the government of Rhodesia in 1964.Media captionMugabe: From war hero to resignationIn 1973, while still in prison, he was chosen as president of the Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu), of which he was a founding member.Once released, he headed to Mozambique, from where he directed guerrilla raids into Rhodesia. But he was also seen as a skilled negotiator.Political agreements to end the crisis resulted in the new independent Republic of Zimbabwe.
    With his high profile in the independence movement, Mr Mugabe secured an overwhelming victory in the republic's first election.But over his decades in power, international perceptions soured, with an increasing number of critics portraying Mr Mugabe as a kind of dictator.In 2000, facing serious political opposition for the first time, he seized white-owned farms to resettle black farmers, causing economic disruption but boosting his popularity among supporters.Around the same time, pro-Mugabe militias used violence to influence political outcomes. In 2008, when he lost the first round of the presidential election, attacks on the opposition resulted in his rival pulling out of the contest.He famously declared that only god could remove him from office.
    Mr Mugabe's downfall came after suspicions that his wife Grace might succeed himHe was forced into sharing power in 2009 amid economic collapse, installing rival Morgan Tsvangirai as prime minister.But in 2017, amid concerns that he was grooming his wife Grace as his successor, the army - his long-time ally - turned against the president and forced him to step down.What has the reaction been?Deputy Information Minister Energy Mutodi, of Mr Mugabe's Zanu-PF party, told the BBC the party was "very much saddened" by his death."As a government, we are very much with the family members of the Mugabe family," he said."He was a principled man: he could not change easily over his beliefs. He's a man who believed himself, he's a man who believed in what he did and he is a man who was very assertive in whatever he said."This was a good man."Not everyone agreed, however.Zimbabwean Senator David Coltart, who was once labelled "an enemy of the state" by Mr Mugabe, said his legacy was marred by his adherence to violence as a political tool.

    "He was always committed to violence, going all the way back to the 1960s... he was no Martin Luther King," he told the BBC World Service. "He never changed in that regard."

    But he acknowledged that there was another side to Robert Mugabe - "a man who indeed had a great passion for education - and I think he mellowed in his later years.

    "There's a lot of affection towards him, because we must never forget that he was the person primarily responsible for ending oppressive white minority rule."

    The government of neighbouring South Africa tweeted its condolences, labelling Mr Mugabe "a fearless pan-Africanist liberation fighter".

    The BBC's Shingai Nyoka, in the capital Harare, said Mr Mugabe was likely to be remembered for his early achievements.

    In his later years, people had called him all sorts of names, but now is probably the time when Zimbabweans will think back to his 37 years in power, she said.

    There's a saying here - that whoever dies becomes a hero, and we're likely to see that now, our correspondent adds.

    Robert Mugabe - key dates
    1924: Born. Later trains as a teacher

    1964: Imprisoned by Rhodesian government

    1980: Wins post-independence elections

    1996: Marries Grace Marufu

    2000: Loses referendum - pro-Mugabe militias invade white-owned farms and attack opposition supporters

    2008: Comes second in first round of elections to Tsvangirai, who pulls out of run-off following nationwide attacks on his supporters

    2009: Amid economic collapse, swears in Tsvangirai as prime minister, who serves in uneasy government of national unity for four years

    2017: Sacks long-time ally Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa, paving the way for his wife Grace to succeed him

    November 2017: Army intervenes and forces him to step down

    Obituary: Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's first post-independence leader

    As independent Zimbabwe's first prime minister, and later its president, Robert Mugabe promised democracy and reconciliation.But the hope that accompanied independence in 1980 dissolved into violence, corruption and economic disaster.President Mugabe became an outspoken critic of the West, most notably the United Kingdom, the former colonial power, which he denounced as an "enemy country".Despite his brutal treatment of political opponents, and his economic mismanagement of a once prosperous country, he continued to attract the support of other African leaders who saw him as a hero of the fight against colonial rule.Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born in what was then Rhodesia on 21 February 1924, the son of a carpenter and one of the majority Shona-speaking people. Educated at Roman Catholic mission schools, he qualified as a teacher. Winning a scholarship to Fort Hare University in South Africa, he took the first of his seven academic degrees before teaching in Ghana, where he was greatly influenced by the pan-Africanist ideas of Ghana's post-independence leader Kwame Nkrumah. His first wife Sally was Ghanaian.In 1960, Mugabe returned to Rhodesia. At first he worked for the African nationalist cause with Joshua Nkomo, before breaking away to become a founder member of the Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu).In 1964, after making a speech in which he called Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith and his government "cowboys", Mugabe was arrested and detained without trial for a decade.
    Mugabe (l) with Nkomo (r) in 1960. The relationship between the two would sour after independenceHis baby son died while he was still in prison and he was refused permission to attend the funeral.In 1973, while still in detention, he was chosen as president of Zanu. After his release, he went to Mozambique and directed guerrilla raids into Rhodesia. His Zanu organisation formed a loose alliance with Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (Zapu).During the tortuous negotiations on independence for Rhodesia, he was seen as the most militant of the black leaders, and the most uncompromising in his demands.On a 1976 visit to London, he declared that the only solution to the Rhodesian problem would come out of the barrel of a gun.But his negotiating skills earned him the respect of many of his former critics. The press hailed him as "the thinking man's guerrilla".
    The Lancaster House agreement of 1979 set up a constitution for the new Republic of Zimbabwe, as Rhodesia was to be called, and set February 1980 for the first elections to the new government.Fighting the election on a separate platform from Nkomo, Mugabe scored an overwhelming and, to most outside observers, unexpected victory. Zanu secured a comfortable majority, although the polls were marred by accusations of vote-rigging and intimidation from both sidesA self-confessed Marxist, Mugabe's victory initially had many white people packing their bags ready to leave Rhodesia, while his supporters danced in the streets.However, the moderate, conciliatory tone of his early statements reassured many of his opponents. He promised a broad-based government, with no victimisation and no nationalisation of private property. His theme, he told them, would be reconciliation.

    He initially promised a programme of reconciliationLater that year he outlined his economic policy, which mixed private enterprise with public investment.With the prime minister frequently advocating one-party rule, the rift between Mugabe and Nkomo widened.After the discovery of a huge cache of arms at Zapu-owned properties, Nkomo, recently demoted in a cabinet reshuffle, was dismissed from government.While paying lip service to democracy, Mugabe gradually stifled political opposition. The mid-1980s saw the massacre of thousands of ethnic Ndebeles seen as Nkomo's supporters in his home region of Matabeleland.
    Confiscation
    Mugabe was implicated in the killings, committed by the Zimbabwean army's North Korean-trained 5th Brigade, but never brought to trial.Under intense pressure, Nkomo agreed for his Zapu to be merged with - or taken over by - Zanu to become the virtually unchallenged Zanu-PF.After abolishing the office of prime minister, Mugabe became president in 1987 and was elected for a third term in 1996.The same year, he married Grace Marufu, after his first wife had died from cancer. Mugabe already had two children with Grace, 40 years his junior. A third was born when the president was 73.
    Farms were occupied by Zanu-PF supporters He did have some success in building a non-racial society, but in 1992 introduced the Land Acquisition Act, permitting the confiscation of land without appeal. The plan was to redistribute land at the expense of more than 4,500 white farmers, who still owned the bulk of the country's best land.In early 2000, with his presidency under serious threat from the newly formed Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), led by former trade union leader Morgan Tsvangirai, Mugabe lashed out against the farmers, seen as MDC backers.His supporters, the so-called "war veterans", occupied white-owned farms and a number of farmers and their black workers were killed.Foreign aid
    The action served to undermine the already battered economy as Zimbabwe's once valuable agricultural industry fell into ruin. Mugabe's critics accused him of distributing farms to his cronies, rather than the intended rural poor.
    Robert Mugabe - key dates
    1924: Born. Later trains as a teacher
    1964: Imprisoned by Rhodesian government
    1980: Wins post-independence elections
    1996: Marries Grace Marufu
    2000: Loses referendum, pro-Mugabe militias invade white-owned farms and attack opposition supporters
    2008: Comes second in first round of elections to Tsvangirai who pulls out of run-off amid nationwide attacks on his supporters
    2009: Amid economic collapse, swears in Tsvangirai as prime minister, who serves in uneasy government of national unity for four years
    2017: Sacks long-time ally Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa, paving the way for his wife Grace to succeed him
    November 2017: Army intervenes and forces him to step down
    Zimbabwe moved rapidly from being one of Africa's biggest food producers to having to rely on foreign aid to feed its population.In the 2000 elections for the House of Assembly, the MDC won 57 out of the 120 seats elected by popular vote, although a further 20 seats were filled by Mugabe's nominees, securing Zanu-PF's hold on power.Two years later, in the presidential elections, Mugabe achieved 56.2% of the vote compared with Mr Tsvangirai's 41.9% against a background of intimidation of MDC supporters. Large numbers of people in rural areas were prevented from voting by the closure of polling stations.
    MDC activists were attacked around the country in 2008With the MDC, the US, UK and the European Union not recognising the election result because of the violence and allegations of fraud, Mugabe - and Zimbabwe - became increasingly isolated.The Commonwealth also suspended Zimbabwe from participating in its meetings until it improved its record as a democracy.In May 2005, Mugabe presided over Operation Restore Order, a crackdown on the black market and what was said to be "general lawlessness".Some 30,000 street vendors were arrested and whole shanty towns demolished, eventually leaving an estimated 700,000 Zimbabweans homeless.SquabblingIn March 2008, Mugabe lost the first round of the presidential elections but won the run-off in June after Mr Tsvangirai pulled out.In the wake of sustained attacks against his supporters across the country, Mr Tsvangirai maintained that a free and fair election was not possible.Zimbabwe's economic decline accelerated, with inflation rates reaching stratospheric levels.After hundreds of people died from cholera, partly because the government could not afford to import water treatment chemicals, Mugabe agreed to negotiate with his long-time rival about sharing power.
    The power-sharing agreement was undermined by argumentsAfter months of talks, in February 2009 Mugabe swore in Mr Tsvangirai as prime minister.It came as no surprise that the arrangement was far from perfect, with constant squabbling and accusations by some human rights organisations that Mugabe's political opponents were still being detained and tortured.Mr Tsvangirai's reputation also suffered by his association with the Mugabe regime, despite the fact that he had no influence over the increasingly irascible president.The 2013 election, in which Mugabe won 61% of the vote, ended the power-sharing agreement and Mr Tsvangirai went into the political wilderness.While there were the usual accusations of electoral fraud - UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon asked that these be investigated - there was not the widespread violence that had marked previous polls in Zimbabwe.It was an election that saw Robert Mugabe, at the age of 89, confirm his position as the undisputed power in the country.His advancing years, and increasing health problems, saw much speculation as to who might replace him.But the manoeuvring among possible successors revealed how fragmented Zimbabwe's administration was and underlined the fact that it was only held together by Mugabe's dominance.Mugabe himself seemed to delight in playing off his subordinates against each other in a deliberate attempt to dilute whatever opposition might arise.With speculation that his wife, Grace, was poised to take control in the event of his death in office, Mugabe announced in 2015 that he fully intended to fight the 2018 elections, by which time he would be 94.
    He was the undisputed power in ZimbabweAnd, to allay any doubt remaining among possible successors, he announced in February 2016 that he would remain in power "until God says 'come'".In the event it wasn't God but units of the Zimbabwe National Army which came for Robert Mugabe. On 15 November 2017 he was placed under house arrest and, four days later, replaced as the leader of Zanu-PF by his former vice-president, Emmerson Mnangagwa.Defiant to the end Mugabe refused to resign, But, on 21 November, as a motion to impeach him was being debated in the Zimbabwean parliament, the speaker of the House of Assembly announced that Robert Mugabe had finally resigned.Mugabe negotiated a deal which protected him and his family from the risk of future prosecution and enabled him to retain his various business interests. He was also granted a house, servants, vehicles and full diplomatic status.Ascetic in manner, Robert Mugabe dressed conservatively and drank no alcohol. He viewed both friend and foe with a scepticism verging on the paranoid.The man who had been hailed as the hero of Africa's struggle to throw off colonialism had turned into a dictator, trampling over human rights and turning a once prosperous country into an economic basket case.His legacy is likely to haunt Zimbabwe for year
    Posted at 13:0013:00
    'Mugabe fearlessly defended Africa' - Zambia's leader
    Zambia's President Edgar Lungu says Mr Mugabe will be remembered for "fearlessly defending the continent".

    In a tweet, he paid tribute to "a pan-Africanist and Zimbabwe's founding father", saying his place in the annals of Africa's history was assured:

    Social embed from twitter

    Edgar Chagwa Lungu

    @EdgarCLungu
    I am saddened at the passing of a Pan-Africanist and Zimbabwe's founding father, Cde Robert #Mugabe. He will be remembered for his fight for Africa’s liberation and fearlessly defending the continent. His place in the annals of Africa’s history is assured. We mourns with Zimbabwe

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    Posted at 12:4812:48
    Ex-Zimbabwean farmer: 'We were frightened'
    The Madgens farm was invaded by Robert Mugabe's supporters

    Veronica Madgen and her husband ran one of the largest farms in Zimbabwe before it was invaded by Mr Mugabe's supporters forcing the family to come to the UK.

    She told BBC Breakfast that the invasion of white-owned farms was prompted because Mr Mugabe's presidency under threat in 2000:

    Quote Message: We were on the second farm that was invaded... the tractors [were] being burnt, the motorcycles [were] being burnt, stones [were being] thrown through the window… it was very difficult to actually come to terms with what was happening.
    We were on the second farm that was invaded... the tractors [were] being burnt, the motorcycles [were] being burnt, stones [were being] thrown through the window… it was very difficult to actually come to terms with what was happening.

    Quote Message: Our workers were as frightened as we were. They wanted to carry on working, and unfortunately this was not possible in some cases.
    Our workers were as frightened as we were. They wanted to carry on working, and unfortunately this was not possible in some cases.

    Responding to news of his death, Mrs Madgen said;

    Quote Message: I was sad for him and his family, because for the first 20 years he governed that country, he was a good leader, until that threat of losing that election got hold of him and he turned."
    I was sad for him and his family, because for the first 20 years he governed that country, he was a good leader, until that threat of losing that election got hold of him and he turned."

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    Posted at 12:4312:43
    Mugabe's former spin doctor in mourning
    "A dark cloud has enveloped Zimbabwe and beyond," Robert Mugabe's former spin doctor and adviser Jonathan Moyo has tweeted.

    Mr Moyo, who served as a minister under Mr Mugabe, went into exile following the military takeover in November 2017.

    He lambasted the country's new rulers for forcing Mr Mugabe to resign and has been a fierce critic of the new administration ever since.

    Social embed from twitter

    Prof Jonathan Moyo

    @ProfJNMoyo
    A dark cloud has enveloped Zimbabwe and beyond. The Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away; Blessed be the name of the Lord!

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    09:59 - 6 Sep 2019
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    Posted at 12:3912:39
    Zimbabwe's ex-president Robert Mugabe dies at 95
    Robert Mugabe, wearing a bright red scarf and sunglasses, raises a fist
    Mr Mugabe was both an icon of independence and a political strongman during his decades in power.

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    Posted at 12:3312:33
    South Africa hails 'fearless pan-Africanist fighter'
    South Africa’s government has hailed Zimbabwe’s founding leader Robert Mugabe as a “fearless pan-Africanist liberation fighter”.

    In a tweet, it sent its condolences, adding that Mr Mugabe, aged 95, had died in hospital in Singapore where he has been receiving treatment.

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    Posted at 12:3212:32
    Mugabe 'made sure he won elections, even if he lost'
    A UK politician on why Zimbabwe's ex-leader was in power for 37 years

    Responding to the question of why Mr Mugabe remained in power for so long Lord Hain told BBC Breakfast: "Because he made he sure he won elections even when he lost them."

    Lord Hain recounted the intimidation and violence Mr Mugabe meted out on members of the opposition, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), and its leader, Morgan Tsvangirai, during the 2008 election.

    "There was a good example in the mid-2000s of losing an election to the MDC opposition, and Morgan Tsvangirai.

    "[Mugabe] clearly lost the election in the first round, and would have lost it in the second round.

    "He started violently attacking the opposition to the point where Tsvangirai said, 'I can’t take my people, my party, my followers into an election where they will be beaten up, killed and intimidated.'

    "He conceded the result to Mugabe, Mugabe then took him in as his own deputy, but it was not satisfactory and the country continued to deteriorate.”

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    Posted at 12:2612:26
    Former UK Labour minister on his meeting with Mr Mugabe
    Lord Peter Hain initially supported Mr Mugabe but relations later soured

    Lord Peter Hain, a former Labour minister who met Mugabe in 1999 and a prominent critic of him, said Mugabe initially came into power as "somebody respected".

    Lord Hain said relations between Mugabe and Tony Blair's Labour government later soured, "because we had been criticising him for his human rights record and corruption".

    Lord Hain met Mr Mugabe when he visited London in 1999, and said they initially "got on very well".

    But a protest the next day by the gay rights activist Peter Tatchell saw relations between the UK and Mugabe go "downhill".

    Lord Hain told BBC Breakfast: “The next morning, the gay rights activist Peter Tatchell committed a citizens’ arrest on him for his homophobia, and Mugabe went absolutely mad.

    "He blamed me for the protest, although I knew nothing about it.

    “Relations just went downhill after that, and he started seizing farms and committing terrible violence on white farmers, destroying the jobs of a hundred black workers on each farm.

    "Things just went in a terrible downward spiral."

    Lord Peter Hain
    AFP/Getty ImagesCopyright: AFP/Getty Images
    Lord Peter Hain was a critic of MugabeImage caption: Lord Peter Hain was a critic of Mugabe
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    Posted at 12:2312:23
    Mugabe epitomised 'the new African' - ANC
    The life of Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's former president, came to epitomise the "new African" of an independent continent, South Africa's governing African National Congress (ANC) has said.

    He was someone who "having shrugged off the colonial yoke, would strive to ensure his country took its rightful place amongst the community of nations", its statement says.

    His Zanu-PF party was an inspiration to the ANC during the years it was fighting South Africa's apartheid government, it added.

    "Throughout his life, the late Comrade Mugabe was an ardent and vocal advocate of African unity and self-reliance and will always be remembered for his rallying cry: 'Africa is for Africans, Zimbabwe is for Zimbabweans.'"

    Although the ANC may have differed with Mr Mugabe on some issues, as "fraternal organisations we held as sacrosanct the principle of sovereignty", the statement continues.

    Read the full statement below:

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    African National Congress

    @MYANC
    ANC MOURNS THE PASSING OF FRIEND, STATESMAN & REVOLUTIONARY COMRADE ROBERT MUGABE#RIPMugabe #RIPRobertMugabe #Zimbabwe

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    Posted at 11:5411:54
    Robert Mugabe 'was a progressive man'
    A former colleague defends Zimbabwe's former leader

    Energy Mutodi, deputy information minister with the governing Zanu-PF, has defended Zimbabwe's former president, who has died aged 95 with many of his countrymen believing he was responsible for destroying a once-prosperous country.

    He told the BBC's Today programme:

    Quote Message: “I want to believe Robert Mugabe was a very progressive man, and whatever happened in whatever description that we can give you, we cannot take away that this is a liberation war hero, this is a statesman, an international statesman."
    “I want to believe Robert Mugabe was a very progressive man, and whatever happened in whatever description that we can give you, we cannot take away that this is a liberation war hero, this is a statesman, an international statesman."

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    Posted at 11:5311:53
    Mugabe's career: From war hero to resignation
    When Robert Mugabe resigned as president in 2017, after more than three decades in power, the BBC looked back at his career.

    In a letter, he wrote: "I Robert Gabriel Mugabe in terms of section 96 of the constitution of Zimbabwe hereby formally tender my resignation... with immediate effect".

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    Video caption: Robert Mugabe's career: From war hero to resignation as presidentRobert Mugabe's career: From war hero to resignation as president
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    Posted at 11:4711:47
    Mugabe's legacy: Zimbabwe's liberator and oppressor

    Shingai Nyoka

    BBC Africa, Harare

    Robert Mugabe
    ReutersCopyright: Reuters
    Robert Mugabe was known for his tough stance he took with his criticsImage caption: Robert Mugabe was known for his tough stance he took with his critics
    The son of a carpenter, Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe rose to become one of the most prominent African leaders and in the process destroyed a formerly prosperous country.

    He cemented his power, winning overwhelmingly at elections in 1980 and as leader of a new nation he set about creating a better country than the one he inherited.

    He spent massively on education, creating the most literate country on the continent and a thriving black middle class.

    But beneath the veneer, lay a dark side: a crack military unit deployed to contain an insurgency in central and southern Zimbabwe killed thousands of civilians. The world turned a blind eye.

    Mugabe was the great hope. But as the economy bottomed out, discontent simmered and he encouraged the restless population to take back their land, which was still largely in the hands of white farmers. They did, often violently.

    The West took note, breaking diplomatic ties and imposing economic sanctions, eliciting this response from the veteran leader: “We are not Europeans. We have not asked for any inch of Europe, any square inch of that territory. So [Tony] Blair, keep your England and let me keep my Zimbabwe.”

    In 2008, a historic economic meltdown handed Mugabe his first electoral defeat. It led to more violence in second round of voting. The opposition supporters were raped tortured.

    Former allies, including South Africa’s first democratically elected President Nelson Mandela, condemned him.

    But he remained a cult-like figure among many Africans - for daring to challenge the Wests dominance within the UN.

    Within his own party, many believed he had overstayed and needed to hand over power. The medical trips to the far east had increased in his 90s.

    Mr Mugabe finally fired Emmerson Mnangagwa, his vice-president, accusing him of trying to topple him. Many believed he wanted to replace him with wife Grace, 40 years his junior.

    With the help of the military, Mr Mnangagwa mounted a comeback. Mr Mugabe was put under house arrest in November 2017 and tens of thousands of Zimbabweans marched calling on him to step down. He resigned, after a threat of impeachment.

    In his last years, Mr Mugabe had retreated to the seclusion of his mansion.

    Many will remember him as gifted orator and visionary who liberated Zimbabwe but later returned her to shackles of oppression.

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    Posted at 11:2511:25
    'He was the founding father of Zimbabwe'
    Energy Mutodi, deputy information minister with the governing Zanu-PF, told the BBC's Today programme: "This is a sorrowful moment for Zimbabwe and for Africa and the whole world.

    “We are very much saddened by the passing on of our former president.

    "He was an icon, he was the founding father of Zimbabwe."

    Responding to criticism that Mr Mugabe presided over the nation's economic decline, Mr Mutodi said: "There is a lot that he did that benefited the people of Zimbabwe... and Africa."

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    Posted at 11:1811:18
    Mugabe - a lifetime in power
    Video content

    Video caption: Robert Mugabe, former president of Zimbabwe, has died aged 95Robert Mugabe, former president of Zimbabwe, has died aged 95
    Robert Mugabe, the former president of Zimbabwe, has died aged 95.

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    Posted at 11:0111:01
    From tanks to resignation: Mugabe's last days in power
    Video content

    Video caption: From tanks to resignation: Mugabe's last daysFrom tanks to resignation: Mugabe's last days
    Here's what has been happening in Zimbabwe last week, in two minutes.

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    Posted at 10:5810:58
    In pictures: The life of Robert Mugabe
    Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, 2003
    A look at the political career of Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe.

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    Posted at 10:5310:53
    Mugabe 'an icon of liberation'
    Zimbabwe President Emmerson Mnangagwa, who took over power after Robert Mugabe was removed by the military in November 2017, has paid tribute to the former leader.

    He tweeted that Mr Mugabe was "an icon of liberation, a pan-Africanist who dedicated his life to the emancipation and empowerment of his people.

    "His contribution to the history of our nation and continent will never be forgotten."

    Social embed from twitter

    President of Zimbabwe

    @edmnangagwa
    It is with the utmost sadness that I announce the passing on of Zimbabwe's founding father and former President, Cde Robert Mugabe (1/2)

    4,853
    10:36 - 6 Sep 2019
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    Social embed from twitter

    President of Zimbabwe

    @edmnangagwa
    · 2h
    It is with the utmost sadness that I announce the passing on of Zimbabwe's founding father and former President, Cde Robert Mugabe (1/2)

     

    President of Zimbabwe

    @edmnangagwa
    Cde Mugabe was an icon of liberation, a pan-Africanist who dedicated his life to the emancipation and empowerment of his people. His contribution to the history of our nation and continent will never be forgotten. May his soul rest in eternal peace (2/2)

    2,121
    10:36 - 6 Sep 2019
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    Posted at 10:5010:50
    Robert Mugabe - key dates
    1924: Born
    Later trained as a teacher
    1964: Imprisoned by Rhodesian government
    1980: Wins post-independence elections
    1996: Marries Grace Marufu
    2000: Loses referendum, pro-Mugabe militias invade white-owned farms and attack opposition supporters
    2008: Comes second in first round of elections to Tsvangirai who pulls out of run-off amid nationwide attacks on his supporters
    2009: Amid economic collapse, swears in Tsvangirai as prime minister, who served in uneasy government of national unity for four years
    2017: Sacks long-time ally Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa, paving the way for his wife Grace to succeed him
    November 2017: Army intervenes and forces him to step down
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    Posted at 10:4510:45
    Obituary: Robert Mugabe
    Robert Mugabe
    His promises of democracy and reconciliation dissolved into violence and economic misery.

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    Posted at 10:3210:32
    BREAKING
    Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's ex-president, dies aged 95

    Shingai Nyoka

    BBC Africa, Harare

    Zimbabwe's former President Robert Mugabe has died, a family member has confirmed to the BBC.

    He was aged 95.

    Mr Mugabe has been in Singapore for medical treatment.

    He led Zimbabwe from 1980 to 2017, when he was ousted by his vice-president with the help of the military.

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    Posted at 10:1510:15
    Sudan's cabinet 'marks new era' post-Bashir
    Sudan’s Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok
    EPACopyright: EPA
    The prime minister said the top priority for his ministers was to end conflict and build peaceImage caption: The prime minister said the top priority for his ministers was to end conflict and build peace
    Sudan’s new Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok has announced his cabinet, the first since the signing of a three-year power-sharing agreement between civilians and the military.

    The country now has its first female foreign minister - Asmaa Abdallah - and there will be three other women among the 18 ministers.

    Jamal Omar, an army general, becomes defence minister and El-Trafi Idris Dafallah, a senior police officer, is interior minister.

    Mr Hamdok, who has served as a UN economist, said after announcing the cabinet:

    Quote Message: Today we begin a new era.
    Today we begin a new era.

    Quote Message: The top priority of the transition government is to end the war and build sustainable peace."
    The top priority of the transition government is to end the war and build sustainable peace."

    Sudan has endured years of insurgencies and months of political turmoil including the overthrow in April of long-time leader Omar al-Bashir.

    The military and pro-democracy movement then became locked in a tussle for power that has led to mass protests and killings.

    Ibrahim Ahmed El-Badawi was named as minister of finance – and his greatest challenge will be dealing with the country’s chronic foreign exchange shortage, after the loss of most of its oilfields when South Sudan seceded in 2011.

    The country has difficulties importing basic goods – and the rise in the price of bread at the end of last year are what prompted the street protests that led to Mr Bashir’s removal from power.

     

     

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